It's since gone on to experiment with other formats, added sports in the 1940s and adopted a personality driven, live-host music format in the '60s and '70s. The program played on the increased racism related to the hard times of the Great Depression. The military tried to convince the people of Spain that For example Fred Allen sometimes told jokes about the "Full Moon Nudist Colony." On November 15, 1926, NBC made its debut over 19 stations extending from the East Coast to Kansas City, Missouri. The future president Ronald Reagan, a sports announcer at WHO in Des Moines, Iowa during much of the Depression, called play-by-play for the Chicago Cubs. Raised on Radio. The world was suddenly smaller and as a result, more frightening for many Americans. Have von (H.V.) (Tone: Phone drops to floor). New York: Pantheon Books, 1998. Comic strips had long provided a shared form of entertainment in America. The radio had become such an integral part of the lives of Americans that it instigated panic throughout the country. The plugger would sell songs, to which the publisher held the recording rights, to popular musicians who would hopefully make the songs famous, which would increase a song's sales and the publisher's profit. Music led the way onto radio, with the broadcasting of swing and big band music in the 1920s. "Ruggles of Red Gap," an episode of the motion-picture adaptation series Academy Award Theater, starring Charles Laughton; airdate June 8, 1946. "Radio 1929-1941 We were then in the midst of the great banking crisis. Licenses for Edwin Armstrong's "static-free" frequency modulation (FM) concept of radio transmission were first granted in 1940-41. Beginning in the 1930s and continuing for more than two decades, a majority of prime-time network programs were actually created by advertising agencies employed by sponsors. Popular soap operas received thousands of letters from women asking for help with real-life problems. One study showed that more than 15 million Americans listened to Coughlin each month, and more than half of them approved of what he said. He built the first radio te Martin Sir Ryle, Ryle, Martin RYLE, MARTIN (b. Jean Colbert (?1995). I want to talk with you very simply about the need for present action in this crisisthe need to meet the unanswered challenge of one-third of a Nation ill-nourished, ill clad, ill-housed. Later in the 1930s as Spain descended into civil war, radio became pivotal in rallying the forces opposing the military government. famous radio personalities 1940s religious interview questions and answers sharleen spiteri ashley heath . His character was particularly appealing to the Great Depression audience that was coping with economic hard times. Young reporters such as Edward R. Murrow, William Shirer, and Walter Cronkite covered breaking news at the front, while commentators such as Walter Winchell analyzed events at home. Actor John Houseman said of Welles and "The War of the Worlds:" "The reason that show worked as well as it did was nerve the slowness of the show in the beginning." The Golden Age of American radio as a creative medium lasted, at best, from 1930 to 1955, with the true peak period being the 1940s. Richard Rogue was a working stiff kind of a private eye, and had a quick tongue. Fireside Politics: Radio and Political Culture in the United States, 1920-1940, by Douglas B. Craig "Remembering the LadiesA Salute to the Women of Early Radio," by Donna L. Halper, "Popular Communications," January 1999. Johnny Otis Collection (SC 106) Over 800 radio programs of black popular music (live and prerecorded), hosted by Johnny Otis, and featuring live interviews with blues and rhythm & blues artists from the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. The play takes its name from the phone number that New Yorkers could dial in the 1930s to get the accurate time. HYLAND: Good lord! Though only relatively wealthy Americans owned radios a decade earlier, in the 1930s radios became a common appliance owned by the majority of Americans ." The firm would make random telephone calls to people who lived in 36 major cities. Sound effects were created in the most innovative ways. Touch device users, explore by touch or with swipe gestures. Former radio personality Doug Allen is a jingle archivist and now maintains Jinglefreaks.com, where his growing collection of radio jingles is available online. He also provided the voice of Norville "Shaggy" Rogers in the Scooby-Doo franchise from 1969 to 1997, and again from 2002 until 2009. Sound effects are an important part of communicating drama and comedy over the radio. The network had 19 stations by the end of 1935; by the mid-1940s Mutual had more than 300 stations, more affiliates than either of its rivals. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Watkins, T.H. Radio had given a voice to Americans' fears about the coming world war. Goebbels and other German leaders knew it was the most effective way available to reach the greatest number of people with propaganda and other information. Add links. 35. This inexpensive form of enjoyment for the whole family included radio shows, music, and more. "Bacon Sandwiches," an episode of the situation comedy series Vic and Sade; airdate August 14, 1940. Encyclopedia.com. Sports commentary was popular on radio and play-by-play commentary on baseball and other games was popular, though not always what it seemed. Dat's goin' make Mister Hopkins mad if he ever find dat out. The Saint .The longest-running radio incarnation was with Vincent Price, who played the character in a series between 1947 and 1951 on three networks: CBS, Mutual and NBC. Amos: When I tell Mister Hopkins dat I lost half de milk, he goin' git mad wid me. Programming was innovative and daring, with pioneers exploring new ways of making the medium of radio captivating. The Halls of Ivy is an NBC radio sitcom that ran from 1950-1952. "Cookie Vejar Killing," an episode of the police drama series Calling All Cars; airdate December 27, 1933. In addition newspapers owned many early radio stations including WGN (named after the "World's Greatest Newspaper," the Chicago Tribune). These are some of the most famous black Radio DJs on the planet. Music programming was the most prevalent throughout the decade, and despite the growth in news, dramas, and comedies, by 1940 music still provided 50 percent of radio programming. The tally resulted in an estimate of the number of people listening to a particular show; a rating of 14.2 meant that out of 100 people called, 14.2 were listening to a particular program at the time of the call. #37 of 61. Roosevelt believed he needed to keep close contact with the American people given the severe hardships many were suffering through the Great Depression and ensuring as much support as possible for his New Deal programs. Please be aware, presenters aren't ranked in order. As increasing poverty made many other forms of entertainment prohibitively expensive, America's reliance on radio grew. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. As they moved to radio and their show was broadcast all over the world they had the awesome task of creating new material for each show. The explosion of radio was both exhilarating and exhausting. Welles's work with radio is best remembered for the show on October 30, 1938, when he aired "The War of the Worlds," a story depicting an alien invasion, which caused widespread panic around the United States. The "public interest" will determine whether the FCC should provide a license to broadcast. Networks competed to hire famous conductors, orchestras, and soloists. Marjorie Finlay also had her own TV show, which had viewership in the USA and Europe. Not only news shows, but also entertainment shows, frequently provided perspective and gentle criticism, helping to break down barriers between communities. Whut you goin' do wid it? Part of its responsibilities was to assign specific radio frequencies and call letters to radio stations. Winchell had many critics of his approach of publicizing activities that many considered inappropriate for public comment. De man don' want no water in his milk.". About $75 could buy a Marconi console, a common reference to a popular type of radio in a wooden cabinet and named after the inventor of radio, Guglielmo Marconi of Italy, who remained active until his death in 1937. Lillian attended high school in Lapwai and went to college in Lewiston. How was radio used to try to change Americans view of the conflict? We also became convinced that the only way to avoid a repetition of those dark days was to have a government with power to prevent and to cure the abuses and the inequalities which had thrown that system out of joint. In 1926 NBC (National Broadcasting Company) went on the air nationally, using telephone lines to carry the signal to nineteen stations and ten million listeners. The immediacy of information had the added impact of making the entire world feel like one's neighborhood. Mail-in premium offers were very successful on youth shows, and one of the most successful was the decoder ring offered by "Little Orphan Annie." Radio personalities are very popular and the success of a radio channel is largely dependent upon the popularity of the radio personality who host its programs. The program lamented the German military planes flying at will over his native country and wreaking havoc with their bombs. . Dials ME 7-1212. Sometimes the days' news events were dramatized over the radio, with actors playing the roles of major participants. There were Programs during the Golden Age of Radio frequently took the name of their sponsors. Early efforts to regulate the radio industry were not very effective. In March 2012 the faculty at the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute at New York University, together with an Honorary Committee of alumni, selected "the 100 Outstanding Journalists in the United States in the Last 100 Years.". Actors would appear on the show to plug their movies, and sometimes would appear in brief versions of their movies on "Hollywood Hotel." List of old-time American radio people. On radios musical front, the National Broadcasting Company established its own symphony orchestra, led by Italian conductor Arturo Toscanini. Soon the reports made clear that the entire world had been invaded by Martians who planned on taking over the planet. The performance of "The War of the Worlds" became one of the most notorious radio performances ever. Richard Diamond began in 1949, and took off as one of the most popular private eye shows on network radio, right up there with Yours Truly, Johnny Dollar and Phillip Marlowe, Private Eye. This reflected the migration of black Americans from Southern rural areas to Northern industrial centers. The fireside chats allowed Americans to feel an intimacy with their president that few had felt beforePresident Roosevelt was in their living room, expressing his concerns, empathizing with their situation. For artists radio opened up a whole new medium to pursue their craft. The price was a steep, but often worthwhile, investment for families that were foregoing most other forms of paid entertainment. By the end of the Depression events in Europe as a whole were deteriorating. 2. As at the start of the twenty-first century advertising paid for most radio programming. She was born in Spalding, Idaho on February 15, 1899. The less expensive radio model made radios a household item. The Most Famous Radio Personality; Name Birthday Nationality Bio; Art Bell: June 17, 1945: American: . "Lost Horizon," an episode of the motion-picture adaptation series Academy Award Theater, starring Ronald Colman; airdate November 27, 1946. What time is it? Radio was how America got its news and how it was entertained. Children and adults followed the adventures of their favorite characters and waited for the next installment. Radio proved its importance during World War II (1939-45) with almost immediate coverage of events. No other media of the time was as pervasive. "Amos 'n' Andy" creators Freeman Gosden and Charles Corell developed a complex world for their characterstwo black, Southern men newly transplanted to a Northern city. . In those days, it was easier to tune into a radio station in Chicago than in northern Michigan for Rock and Roll music. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (served 19331945) immediately seized on the popularity of radio with his series of Fireside Chats that he conducted beginning in the second week of his presidency. Wellss science-fiction tale The War of the Worlds created panic when listeners failed to hear the disclaimer and believed Martians actually were invading Earth. The specialists had to be very creative to discover ways to communicate and support the actionthe sound of walking, breaking glass, a door closing, a train whistling. Throughout the 1930s, as the world careened toward war, America debated the appropriate response to the emerging conflict. In 1933 alone 3.6 million radio sets were sold. The sound of the rocket ship in "Buck Rogers in the Twenty-Fifth Century" was created by placing paper over the air-conditioning vents and placing a microphone in a small spot in the middle. These developments proved timely as the radio provided much entertainment and a source of information for the Depression public. But that began what we called "personality radio." . Some sources say the whistling theme for The Saint was created by Leslie Charteris while others credit RKO composer Roy Webb.Price left in May 1951. The city's first disc jockey was Halloween Martin, whose show, Musical Clock, was a morning staple on various stations from 1929 to 1946. View More. Radio itself was not brand new in the 1930s, but it is during this time that it became an integral part of the lives of Americans. Article; Talk; English. William S. Paley (19011990). Garner, Joe. Winchell is sometimes considered the father of tabloid reporting. The public found these programs a welcomed escape from worries of the Depression and the demand grew for more. Beulah was employed as a housekeeper and cook for the Henderson family: father Harry, mother Alice and son Donnie. He played for the Brooklyn Dodgers and was born Jan. 31, 1919 in Cairo, GA. Everyone in America knew Jack Benny and his foibles. https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-and-education-magazines/radio-1929-1941, "Radio 1929-1941 For example, newspapers were still more a local and regional form of information sharing. Ronald Reagan (served 19811989) became another president skilled at using mass media to charm the public and press while seeking to gain support for his programs. Block programming defined much of radio before TV challenged radio to become the top form of media in the 1950s. October 1999. Radio emerged as an important method of disseminating news during the 1930s. Early in 1927, a competing network called United Independent Broadcasters was formed. Later recorded music was regularly broadcast, and radio stations had a series of continuing battles with ASCAP (American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers) over how to charge fees for playing recorded music that had copyrights. Rogue's Gallery was just a warm up for Richard Diamond, a series that took the best of the Richard Rogue character and made it even more suave and swinging by placing Diamond in New York City and giving him a Park Avenue girlfriend that purrs like a Jaguar. Colbert provided an escape for the women of the nation toiling under difficult economic conditions. Radio was the best buy for escape and information during hard times. In 1922 he introduced the Radiola, for $75, and made radio a household appliance. Roosevelt would use radio to not only lobby for public support of his programs, but also to inform the public of important events and perhaps most importantly reassure the public through his unique personal character that faith in the future was warranted. Kaltenborn, Edward R. Murrow, William L. Shirer, and Eric Severeid. . In effect, four Justices ruled that the right under a private contract to exact a pound of flesh was more sacred than the main objectives of the Constitution to establish an enduring Nation. In 1936 the Republican Party's radio dramatization, "Liberty at the Crossroads," played an important role in the campaign. Some radio performers had teams of writers preparing jokes for them. We'll fill dat up wid water. January 21, 2013, . An early investor in the network was the Columbia Phonograph Company, which insisted that the chain be called the Columbia Phonograph Broadcasting System. For example they created the character of Dick Tracy, Jr. who encouraged listeners to become Dick Tracy Junior Detectives by sending in box tops from certain cereals. Millions of American soldiers left for World War II, and with them went men and women journalists - most notably the "Murrow boys." Edward R. Murrow, made famous by World War II, began a transition from radio to television. Amos: : Wait a minuteyou can't do dat wid de stuff. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Even in the 1990s and early twenty-first century presidents Bill Clinton (served 19932001) and George W. Bush (served 2001) used weekly radio broadcasts to The stock market crash and following Great Depression brought economic hard times to many Americans. Radio was an inexpensive way to keep up with news events of the Great Depression and farming news, and provided a ready means for escape from the economic hard times through sports broadcasts and entertainment programs. The Golden Web: A History of Broadcasting in the United States, Volume II, 1933 to 1953. Dramatic shows and situation comedies, the bulk of prime-time programming, ran 30 minutes each. The decade started off in 1921 with just 5 radio stations in the country but ended with 606 stations. Swing represented decadent America, and jazz was seen as antithetical to the purity of the Aryan race, which was a term for the non-Jewish white population. Her distinctive, high-pitched voice also took people by surprise. After Hurt died of a heart attack in 1946, he was replaced by another white actor, Bob Corley, and the series was retitled The Beulah Show. While classical music was important to the success of early radio, not everyone liked the side effects. I got a idea. Murrow set the standard for American journalism providing descriptive reports of many of the 1930s and 1940s important events. Writer-producer-director Norman Corwin, one of radio's brightest talents, ruefully made the point that radio's most creative era was "the shortest golden age in history." During its brief heyday, however, dramatic radio thrived and was a vital part of . The first, delivered on March 12, 1933, only eight days after Roosevelt took office, attracted more 17 million families. Most Cleveland stations began making applications over the decade. Han' me dat bucket. Corrections? Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1997. Many radio shows were broadcast all over the country, and served to create a community of shared experience for a diverse and widespread world. News reporters such as Edward R. Murrow (1908-1965) and William Shirer (1904 . Mr. Riechman was the distributor for Majestic Radios and felt the future was in selling radios rather than in broadcasting. During American radios Golden Age, much of the programming heard by listeners was controlled by advertising agencies, which conceived the shows, hired the talent and staff (sometimes drawing performers directly from the old vaudeville theatre circuit), and leased airtime and studio facilities from the radio networks. Many of the 1930s programs would set the standard for programming in all media for the rest of the century. Clifton Fadiman was an editor, author and well-known radio and television personality. Radio then morphed into radio formats . ." Charles Coughlin was a Canadian-American Catholic priest and populist leader who promoted antisemitic and pro-fascist views. Radio played an important role in politics during the Depression. Comic strips were transformed into popular radio programs with the debut of shows based on "Little Orphan Annie," "Buck Rogers in the Twenty-Fifth Century," "Flash Gordon," and "Dick Tracy." John Lennon (1940 - 1980) British musician, member of the Beatles. Some critics called it "bread and circuses," a narcotic for the masses to keep them from fully comprehending the situation in which they found themselves. He built the first radio te, Ryle, Martin Programs became fixed in quarter-hour and half-hour blocks and featured a wide variety of formats. . By Amie Tennant. In radios earliest days, Hollywood did not provide network programming, with rare exceptions. Arthur "Al Benson" Bernard Leaner - WGES. Cleveland's radio industry in the 1980s was still largely in turmoil, with programming shifts, personality changes, and the rapid purchase and . My Favorite Husband is the name of an American radio program and network television series. We ought to tell him. Other once-influential radio personalities, such as Mary Margaret McBride (1899-1976), are not as well known today. 32. Networks used telephone lines to transmit their signals to affiliates, and because they were designed to be broadcast from the East Coast to the West, AT&T charged $1,000 an hour to reverse the circuits. Walter Winchel l eventually died friendless and . Pluggers were named for "plugging" or aggressively selling the idea of recording a publisher's music. Group photograph of Eddie Anderson, Dennis Day, Phil Harris, Mary Livingstone, Jack Benny, Don Wilson, and Mel Blanc. It was a time when the airwaves were dominated by big personalities with loud voices. "The Seventh Victim," an episode of the science-fiction series X Minus One, based on a short story by Robert Sheckley; airdate March 6, 1957. During World War I, most private U.S. radio stations were either shut down or taken over by the government under order of President Woodrow Wilson, and it was illegal for U.S. citizens to possess an operational transmitter or receiver. CBS would soon become a major force in radio, although it would take years before it would challenge NBCs supremacy. Daily soap operas, mysteries, science fiction, and fantasy programs were performed alongside radio productions of classic plays and live musical performances. Richar Diamond starring Dick Powell.First came Rogue's Gallery *where I know him from originally*in 1945-46. The program changed names over the years as it was sponsored by different products, but Benny remained a household name as the protagonist of the show. Vintage airchecks from the 1950s to the 1990s is a directory of other sites. At Hoovers behest, most frequencies between 550 kHz and 1,350 kHz were turned over for broadcast use in May 1923. The FCC consisted of seven members appointed by the president and confirmed by the senate. Jun 8, 2015 - Explore April's board "Radio Stars of the 40's and 50's", followed by 2,433 people on Pinterest. Choosing just the top 10 radio presenters of all time was hard enough, so take the following with a pinch of salt. (Sock. The show, which began slowly and calmly at first, steadily built to a frantic pace, giving the impression of hours passing in minutes. Comedies took on issues of race relations, poverty, and cultural misunderstandings, providing a framework to help people make sense of their rapidly changing country and world. The program began as Sam n Henry on Chicagos WGN station in 1926 and quickly became a national phenomenon when it made its network debut under its new name in 1929. The former vaudevillian actor mastered the unique art of radio and created a variety show of immense popularity. The A&P Gypsies, an orchestra conducted by Harry Horlick, was sponsored by A&P grocery stores. In reaction some countries occupied by German forces in the late 1930s surreptitiously broadcast opposing viewpoints. Initially all stations in the United States had to operate on a single frequency, 833 kilohertz (kHz), and stations in the same area were forced to share time so their signals did not interfere with each another. Not only would Americans share in the hardship caused by the Depression and in the solutions offered by the New Deal, but also in fads which themselves provided further escape from the Depression. Top 10 1940s Radio Programs 1940-41: The Jell-O Program. In the early 1940s, World War II catalyzed the growth of network news, as local stations depended on the major networks overseas correspondents. There were eight major transmitters and as many as sixty smaller transmitters. Artists interviewed include Little Esther Phillips, Al Frazier, Mary Wells, Zola Taylor, the Coasters, Horace Silver . When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. In response to the election, the Spanish military formed a military government, exiled the leaders of the group, and attempted to isolate the various local groups that supported the Popular Front. (Picks up phone. A radio personality is a person who hosts a radio talk show and interacts with the audience via telephone or email. (Tone) (The sob is audible now) When you hear the signal the time will be (Pause) twelve o'clock. Frequency modulation (FM) was introduced in which static interference was much less. Since the 1940s, Black disc jockeysor deejayshave been an inseparable part of Black radio. These concerns were later mirrored by similar concerns expressed over the effects television and personal computers posed on child development. The expansion of radio also played a key role in this change of national character. Radio, however, had a rocky start in America. #4 of 38 on. Here are 100 popular actresses who were very famous at some point during the golden era of Hollywood, the 1930's through the 1940's. They are not listed in any particular order. Nothing seemed too far away, and other cultures that once seemed exotic and strange were more familiar. Considerable interference resulted as operators shifted station frequency (and sometimes the transmitter location, by mounting it in a truck) in an attempt to obtain a clear signal. In addition the rise of communism and fascism (dictatorships) in Europe was increasingly causing alarm in the United States.